The following terms describing various definitions of Jewish religion, Jewish “nationality” and generally Jews, were used in Poland and some adjacent Slavic countries throughout history:
- Zydowska [zhee dov skah] (from Zyd [zheed]- word derived from Jude)
- Judaistyczna [yuh da eest eechnah] (from Judaism)
- Izraelicka [izrah elit skah] (from Israel) Hebrajska [he bra yskah] (from Hebrew) Semicka [ seh mee tskah] (from Semite)
- Starozakonna [stah roh zah konnah] (from the “Old Testament believers”) Old Testamentaski (sic!) — a sometimes ‘polite’ form has been used to describe “friendly” or patriotic Jews and was a popular term in the 19th century during the Polish National Uprisings against the Russian Empire, in which Jews participated in 1831 and 1863.